Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation - Performance Forum

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Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Wednesday, July 25, 2007 1:28 PM
I notice that sometimes people have confussion on what restriction, air flow velocity and resonating effects is.

I wanted to do a write up that would help people to understand how everything works together and explain things a little better.

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Restriction is a matter of how much air flow (volume) should be ingested (or forced) or exhaust flow should be sent out of the exhaust system at one point and it is not causing a "bottleneck" in flow which will coincidentally make the engine work harder to either get air or send out exhaust waste.

There are a lot of people who are very quick to change their intake manifolds without understanding how everything plays into effect of each other.

Bigger isn't always better and there are reasons behind it...

Lets look at it from the point of view of intake manifolds:

When your intake valve opens, the piston is moving downwards in the cylinder which is creating a strong pressure wave drawing air into the combustion chamber to achieve maximum cylinder filling. Maximum cylinder filling depends upon the capacity of air (the amount of air able to enter at one point) and the velocity of air entering (the speed that the air is traveling towards the combustion chamber).

There are key parts that determine the capacity:

1. Cylinder Head Intake Ports diameter
2. Intake manifold runner diameter
3. Intake manifold plenum diameter
4. Throttle body size diameter
5. Air box / Intake tubing diameter

For most vehicles, the intake ports will technically be the most restrictive part of the intake system but this does not mean this is a bad thing necessarily. Now of course, the larger the diameter, the higher capacity of air that could be present at one point. Example: Think of a cup that is 2" diameter compared to a cup that is 3" diameter that are the same height, the 3" diameter cup would be able to consume a higher volume of fluid at one point than the 2".

Here is the kicker though of why bigger isn't always better...

Remember, the engine is a big air pump, as the piston is moving downwards, it's drawing in it's own pressure of air (vacuum) into the combustion chamber but the larger the key parts are, the lower the pressure will be and the slower the speed of air will travel into the combustion chamber.

The bad side of slowing down the velocity of air...loss of low end power. Why? Imagine a straw that is 1" in diameter and you are using your mouth to suck in air and you do it a certain strength of drawing air in. Now change the straw size to 2" and once again use your mouth to suck in air at the same strength. Theoretically, air will travel slower (velocity) with the 2" straw than the 1" straw. The straw is your intake system, your mouth sucking in is the same effect as your piston moving downwards to BDC (Bottom Dead Center) during the intake stroke and the intake valve being open.

Focusing on the intake manifold, the longer and narrower the runners are, the higher the intake velocity will be. These types of runners are optimal for low end torque cause like said, air is capable of traveling in faster with less intake strokes occuring (less engine revolutions occuring) but is not necessarily optimal for high RPM performance (above 5-6k RPMs). Shorter and Wider intake runners are optimal for higher RPM performance because you have a higher air capacity which is necessarily for as many engine revolutions (think: more engine revolutions, the more intake strokes that are occuring, the more air that needs to be present in order to spray more fuel and keep your powerband climbing) but is not optimal for lower RPM or low end power because of the slowed down air velocity with the wider runners. Also note, the more revolutions that occur, the stronger the velocity build up.

Now you might think to yourself "How can I have best of both worlds?"

A couple ways to think of it but it's more of a expensive route of experimenting and designing a intake manifold. There are calculations out there to help you develope the best possible manifold design according to the powerband you're looking for and the amount of airflow that you require to achieve the power you're requesting.

Valve Overlap plays a large effect into this as well.

First let me explain that when it comes to exhaust systems and picking out the most ideal exhaust system, velocity of exhaust flow should be the most important part. With that said, every vehicle/engine with an exhaust system will HAVE backpressure.

When your exhaust valve opens, the piston moving towards TDC (Top Dead Center) is pushing exhaust waste outwards to the exhaust system but at the same time it's creating a exhaust pulse (positive pulse) that resonates into the exhaust system. When this wave reaches the end of the exhaust system, the action of your intake valve opening creates a negative pulse to travel back through your piping, into your combustion chamber and back outward to your intake manifold. This moving of pulse waves is called a resonating effect and it all happends in about the speed of sound.

How does valve overlap help you? When the wave travels all the way through your exhaust system, back into your combustion chamber and into your intake manifold, as your exhaust valve closes and the piston moves towards BDC during the intake stroke, the pulse waves help increase the velocity of the sluggish air traveling from the atmosphere. If you have a short and wider intake manifold runner while having a properly sized exhaust system and camshafts that create a sufficient amount of valve overlap (example: On a DOHC vehicle), this could be a very optimal setup while having a great midrange to high end powerband.

Going back to what I said earlier on how your intake manifold being smaller and more "restrictive" is not always a bad thing because the smaller diameter will increase the velocity of the air charge before it enters the combustion chamber assuming the valve is open.

Another note about resonating effects is that when the piston does reach BDC and the valve closes, air that was being drawn is now going to hit the valve and cause a resonating effect and send a pressure wave back outwards to the intake manifold plenum and out the throttle body opening and as the intake valve opens again, the pressure wave now helps draw in more air and increase the velocity of the air charge once again into the combustion chamber.

To explain more about camshafts and valve overlap if you don't understand

Valve Overlap is the occurance right in between the end of the Exhaust Stroke and the beginning of the Intake stroke because both the Intake Valves and Exhaust Valves are open which as I explained the cause of this can improve resonating effects which can help you improve cylinder filling.

Camshaft duration is talking about how long the valves are open for.

Camshaft lift is talking about how far the valves are being pushed downwards into the combustion chamber.

Camshafts do nothing but move around your powerband and can also effect the velocity of air depending on the RPM. Granted I mentioned that valve overlap can increase resonating effects but it's all to a degree and it all depends on the rest of the intake system (including the ports) and exhaust system (including ports).

The valves are another thing that can effect the velocity of air for the same reasons. Increasing the size (diameter) of the end of the valves and the valve seats will of course increase the possibility of having a larger capacity of air entering at one point but once again...can effect air velocity.

Now to some wanting to ask "How does this all play into effect with forced induction?"

Forced Induction changes the game a bit because now instead of relying on vacuum pressure creating by the natural occurance of your piston moving downward, you're relying on a compressor to now compress the air and force it down the engines intake system. This is also going to increase the engines VE (Volumetric Efficiency) even to the point of going pass 100%. Basically, a engine's displacement is talking about the capacity of air that could physically be able to be drawn into the engines cylinder at bottom dead center (stroke x bore) naturally. If now you're having a compressor send in MORE air than it could naturally draw in, you're now reaching the possibility of it reaching more than 100% Volume Capacity during it's natural capabilities.

Depending on the type of compressor you're using, you might or might not have a intake manifold and your compressor might be pre or post throttle body (Pre Examples: Turbocharger, Centrigual Supercharger - Post Example: Roots Type Supercharger).

If your compressor is pre throttle body, increasing the size of the runners, plenum and throttle body (talking about diameter size) it could be able to support a higher CFM of airflow that your compressor is capable of flowing through, which means, you could still keep up a great velocity of air traveling inwards throughout your intake system and into your combustion chamber.

If your compressor is post throttle body, you are almost following the same laws as before BUT the turning of your roots supercharger will make a stronger draw in for airflow but the air traveling from the intake box or tubing before it reaches into the supercharger housing will NOT be above atmospheric pressure, it will be just at a higher vacuum pressure traveling inward. So basically, increasing your throttle body or intake tubing can and will slow down the air traveling towards the throttle body.

Going back to valve overlap, it is kind of a touchy subject when it comes to forced induction applications. Typically people say that you want less valve overlap with some setups, some say it doesn't matter.

If you have compressed air traveling inwards during the intake stroke, for optimum power, you would think that with less overlap, you would have less wasted pressurized air traveling out of the exhaust system towards the end of the exhaust stroke which means MORE cylinder filling, hence, more air molecules and more of a possibility for you to spray more fuel and create a stronger ignition on the top of the piston to create more power ultimately. At the same time, with some valve overlap occuring this would help resonating effects.

The touchy part typically comes up with turbo setups. They say you should have less overlap for this reason:

Since the turbine on the turbocharger is of course reliant on the exhaust energy from your engine, the amount of exhaust exiting will effect the response of the turbine which ultimately effects how fast your compressor wheel will spin to create X pressure that you're aiming for (Note: Compressor wheel has to spin a certain RPM to create X pressure in the compressor housing to shoot towards the throttle body). If you're increasing valve overlap, you're lessening cylinder filling and also you're shortening the strength of the exhaust being pushed outwards to the turbine. This also exposes hot exhaust gases to cooler temperatured air entering the combustion chamber which may lower the EGTs (Exhaust Gas Temperatures) which will alter the energy of the exhaust leaving the exhaust valves. This may effect the response negatively.

How much negatively can it effect you? Depends on your setup BUT from my knowledge (not to sound cocky at all) of turbocharger systems, there are MANY ways to improve the response of your turbocharger like....

1. Increasing the size of the exhaust ports
2. Looking into a non-journal bearing turbocharger
3. Properly sizing the turbocharger to your engine

Those are just some simple ways. In my opinion, it for the most part shouldn't make or break your performance unless you have a very high strung engine. Also note that valve overlap isn't necessarily needed for resonating effects of the negative pulse "pulling" in a intake air charge because of the fact that there is a turbocharger on your exhaust system with a turbine. Post turbocharger as well, exhaust velocity isn't important and backpressure is your enemy for the fact that it can disrupt the response of the turbine spinning in one direction and pressure waves fighting against it's operation. The most ideal exhaust system for a turbo setup is to be as short (lenght) and wide (diameter) as possible so it has the littlest backpressure being created especially for the fact that velocity "laws" don't matter after the turbocharger.

Another note about Valve Overlap, increasing Valve Overlap may cause issues with fuel enrichment just from a fact that it will change the consumption of air at wide open throttle (WOT) but also during idle and low RPM conditions (this is of course saying that if you DON'T have Variable Valve Timing system that doesn't involve Cam Phasing), fuel enrichment requirements may change now in order to have a balanced idle quality and better driveablility. Remember, increased overlap is not only happening at wide open throttle but in ALL engine conditions. If you have a MAP based system, this is especially true because now you're having a constant fluctuation in manifold pressure...which...is how your MAP sensor is only able to meter air (this is of course talking about a stock computer & calibration). If you have a MAF based system, depending on the aggressiveness of the camshaft profile, a fuel enrichment calibration might not be so critical for the fact of how your MAF is able to meter air. This of course depends on your application.

I hope everyone has learned a little bit or a lot from this write up. I just see a lot of people who might not have caught onto how things effect each other and it's not all about 5 + 5 = 10 HP because that's not at all how it works. Everything effects each other and there are much more details that I left out that I would highly suggest everyone look into. Resonating effects are important and effect a engines operation and how efficient the engine runs. If you did indeed read all of this, you will see how repeatative it is but it just goes to show how everything plays into each other.

Hopefully this all makes sense. I wrote it at 5 am without any sleep lol

Enjoy.

- Adam


www.kronosperformance.com / 732-742-8837


Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Wednesday, July 25, 2007 2:33 PM
I thought they threw you in the slammer down there in Elvis country.

-M


Remember....syringes go in the RED waste basket.
Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Wednesday, July 25, 2007 2:50 PM
I'm moving back to Jersey

I'm not really back on the forum, Dave said I should post this up here which I did.


www.kronosperformance.com / 732-742-8837

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Thursday, July 26, 2007 3:48 PM
Great another useless sticky.




FU Tuning



Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Friday, July 27, 2007 8:57 AM
So useless that you had to comment...?


www.kronosperformance.com / 732-742-8837

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Friday, July 27, 2007 12:46 PM
John Higgins wrote:

Great another useless sticky.

how is it useless at all? it helps people (like me) that dont know much about this kinda stuff.




Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Friday, July 27, 2007 1:42 PM
TheGreenMachine(isnt so green) wrote:

John Higgins wrote:

Great another useless sticky.

how is it useless at all? it helps people (like me) that dont know much about this kinda stuff.


Exactly. Not everyone understands these things.

I find it funny that out of different forums that I've posted this write up, this is the only place I got a negative response.

Oh well. At least someone appreciates it.



www.kronosperformance.com / 732-742-8837

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Friday, July 27, 2007 2:17 PM
It's simple Adam, if it's not what the band wagon believe or say, it's useless or wrong even tough the band wagon is wrong ALOT of times.

This place _______ . It was a great place once but it is not anymore.



Gilles
2.3 Ho

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Friday, July 27, 2007 9:34 PM
John Higgins wrote:

Great another useless sticky.


John, I have alot of respect for you but lately alot of your posts have been negative ,why is that?Because some people go against what you believe is correct?You always seem against people running different intake mainifolds,deleting the balance shafts,changing oiling systems,(2.3 swap).The whole point is to MODIFY,if you want to stay stock,then stay stock,don't knock others for trying different things



15.2@89mph 2.171 60ft. 9.830 1/8 R.I.P. "LULU"
Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Sunday, July 29, 2007 9:49 AM
yo are you back???? drop me a line I havent talked to you in like fo eva


"boobs now with Riboflabin"
Image
Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Sunday, July 29, 2007 9:52 AM
by the way I dont know if you mentioned it or not, but rember forced induction never has back pressure issues, unless theres to much.


your goal with boost is to flow as much as possiable. the scavengin affect has very little importance, seeing as how your combustion is rareing to relase the second that valve opens.


"boobs now with Riboflabin"
Image

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Sunday, July 29, 2007 1:48 PM
Judging from your mis-information in the past... .
Provide a link as to where you copied this item from so we can see the full story, maybe that site could've provided pictures and diagrams to spruce up the information.




>>>For Sale? Clicky!<<<
-----The orginal Mr.Goodwrench on the JBO since 11/99-----

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Monday, July 30, 2007 10:25 AM
whats your deal lately?

Your a smart guy, and should of been able to pick that a part. it was all pretty basic stuff. someof the vavle over lap info is new to me, but everything eles was simple stuff, that would be benificary to newer minds.


"boobs now with Riboflabin"
Image
Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Monday, July 30, 2007 3:28 PM
Mr.Goodwrench-G.T. wrote:

Judging from your mis-information in the past... .
Provide a link as to where you copied this item from so we can see the full story, maybe that site could've provided pictures and diagrams to spruce up the information.


Here we go...

So are you accusing me of plagorism or mis-information? If it's mis-information, why don't you read it and tell me if it's wrong.

If it's plagorism, I didn't copy and paste this from anywhere...that's not my style. If I was to ever copy and paste, I ALWAYS link to where I got it from and would have listed it in the beginning.

But I guess it's hard for you to see that I actually learned something since not being involved with this forum in over a year...



www.kronosperformance.com / 732-742-8837

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Monday, July 30, 2007 3:30 PM
Jcavi wrote:

by the way I dont know if you mentioned it or not, but rember forced induction never has back pressure issues, unless theres to much.


your goal with boost is to flow as much as possiable. the scavengin affect has very little importance, seeing as how your combustion is rareing to relase the second that valve opens.


To answer your first question, I'm alright. I'm not really back on the forum at all but I still talk to Dave and he thought it would be a good idea for me to post this up.

As far as the forced induction comment, supercharged vehicles still rely on the concept of exhaust velocity shifting their powerband even under boost pressure.



www.kronosperformance.com / 732-742-8837

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Tuesday, July 31, 2007 3:15 AM
Oh man.... Adam, let me start by saying that as far as I'm concerned, our little pissing match is over, so this isn't aimed at you. But it drives me up a goddam wall that dave found this so important to sticky when a simple google search can find you pretty much the same information. I didn't read the whole thing, but from what I skimmed, its basic principles of airflow and how it correlates to an engine. Basic to me, I'm sure not so basic to others so I won't take away from the fact that some may find it useful. But what drives me f-ing crazy is that we have seen so many J-body SPECIFIC threads with valuable information get pushed off the front pages of this forum by more and more useless posts about cold air intakes and headers, and those don't get stickied. WTF Dave? What about the lifter thread for the OHV guys that includes SlowOleJ's LN2/LT1 hybrid lifter how-to? What about the threads like that, that just get thrown by the wayside, but instead we insist on catering this forum to the greenest of the newbs. We STILL don't have a mention in any of the boost stickies about the fact that some 03, and almost all 04-plus J's don't enter power enrichment until 5500-plus RPM, and thus will trim out any fuel you add to them until they see 14.7:1 A/F ratios, but we keep posting up basic parts lists that can be found anywhere. I'm fine with adding info like this thread to the site, but not at the expense of letting the valuable J-specific information get buried in the archives while these topics get the front page for life. If I have to, I'll track all of that stuff down myself, compile it into a list and make the thread. But will it get the magical sticky?




Arrival Blue 04 LS Sport
Eco
Turbo
Megasquirt
'Nuff said
Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Tuesday, July 31, 2007 4:46 AM
Quote:

we have seen so many J-body SPECIFIC threads with valuable information get pushed off the front pages of this forum


first off, adam, I agree with jay the pissing match is over.

but what burns me up is the fact that like Jay said, we have a few people here pushing the envelope with things that haven't been developed or tried yet, and they get buried by other very generic posts about the basics of the internal combustion engine. The information here (from what I skimmed) is a good read

however, I went through a lot of trouble to write up a sticky about how to swap the ecotec into a 3rd gen chassis with Dave's permission to make into a sticky for the Library, and for the 3rd gen/ performance forums. Its been completed and posted for about 4 months and has yet to be stickied. I've emailed dave several times and have gotten no response back from him. I know that thread could help a lot of people because I get AIM and email messages almost daily in regards to the swap. Also, there are lots of pictures I'd like to add to it that I can't until its stickied and I get access to edit the post and correct mistakes and add pictures.

So is this sticky useless? Not entirely. But I feel there's a lot of other information on here that is very specific to the Jbody platform that SHOULD be stickied, but isn't.





Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Tuesday, July 31, 2007 6:55 AM
Let me start by saying my comment was not directed at Adam. I have never met him and I'm not trying to judge him. I actually did not read more than the first line of this. The reason for my post was simple. I @!#$ HATE STICKY'S!!!! This site has put sticky's up and they might help a few people (or make some people worse off because of miss information), and we still get post asking the same questions. Now I personally do not have a problem with people making post (even if it is the same question already asked). I feel sticky's make the forum look like CRAP! We do have a library which a good part of that info is old or incorrect. I know some people have tried to update some of it. I have even tried to get updated info on the Ecotec swap, but seems to never find it's way in there.

I also feel that it seems some people can get a sticky in the click of there finger, while other threads with much more important better info can't get it.

As for me being negative (I think I explained some of that). I have not been negative about the 2.3 oil pump swap (not that this has anything to do with this post, but will comment since it was brought up). Yes I think a 2.4 can be built and make great power with the stock oiling system (which has been proven). I do not like how people say the only way to build a 2.4 is with the 2.3 oiling system. It is not. If that is me being negative then I guess you are right. Sorry the way I feel.




FU Tuning



Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Tuesday, July 31, 2007 8:38 AM
NJHK wrote:

Mr.Goodwrench-G.T. wrote:

Judging from your mis-information in the past... .
Provide a link as to where you copied this item from so we can see the full story, maybe that site could've provided pictures and diagrams to spruce up the information.


Here we go...

So are you accusing me of plagorism or mis-information? If it's mis-information, why don't you read it and tell me if it's wrong.

If it's plagorism, I didn't copy and paste this from anywhere...that's not my style. If I was to ever copy and paste, I ALWAYS link to where I got it from and would have listed it in the beginning.

But I guess it's hard for you to see that I actually learned something since not being involved with this forum in over a year...


Plainly put, you are known for post-whoring with mis-information, worst of all, you directed your ignorance on cars (J-body) to the "newbie" section and because of your spewing of mis-information to the new members, we are now feeling the after effects with ridiculous and repetitive questions in other sections.
So point blank, judging by your giving of past mis-information, something like this would've never came from you, besides I assumed the information you ripped this from had nice pictures and diagrams to spruce-up the info and enrich the imagination.
(If) by in fact you learned something new in the past year, like you said then: congratulations. You shall get gold sprinkled sticker that says; "most improved" and a cookie in the mail as your reward courtesy of Dave.





>>>For Sale? Clicky!<<<
-----The orginal Mr.Goodwrench on the JBO since 11/99-----

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Tuesday, July 31, 2007 2:18 PM
To Jay and PJ

I appreciate what you said actually. I just thought it would be helpful because as basic as it seems, alot of people don't know this stuff or understand it. I put this up on other forums and I get people who thank me because they didn't understand it, so I thought it could be useful on any forum, not just here. Maybe your concerns could be aimed at Dave though...I just asked him if he wanted to and he said yes.

To Goodwrench

I still don't see what you're bitching about. If by what you read was incorrect, then by all means say that what I"m saying is "mis information". But until then, your gripe is over what? You hold such dislike towards me for no appearant reason. That sticky thread in the newbies section, the source I got the HP ratings for the cars was evidentally wrong to what you said...jeez off by 6 HP or something miniscule. The other things you ADDED to what I said. But whatever.

Fact of the matter, you would bitch and moan if I wrote a sticky or if I wrote a book.



www.kronosperformance.com / 732-742-8837

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Friday, August 03, 2007 10:27 PM
Hey, let's everybody watch NJHK and Goodwrench get a sticky locked! has that ever happened before?
really, guys, I would like to find a couple of threads on this site that don't include some pointless fight. Internet fights are lame. this is supposed to be about the cars.

I'm not overly impressed with stickies in general, mostly for the reasons John listed. MHO.



LD9 F23 FTW!!

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Sunday, August 05, 2007 11:53 AM
will someone that knows it all read it and tell me whats wrong with it? cause if there isnt and people are just bitch wtf is the point?




Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Monday, August 06, 2007 5:01 PM
I have to say that I agree with what a lot of people above said. This is a good read but there are a lot of J-body specific posts that I think should be made stickys and more valuable than this, such as the eco swap or the 2.3 oil pump swap walk through.



Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Tuesday, August 07, 2007 5:46 AM
Zs Z wrote:

I have to say that I agree with what a lot of people above said. This is a good read but there are a lot of J-body specific posts that I think should be made stickys and more valuable than this, such as the eco swap or the 2.3 oil pump swap walk through.


Maybe so but I think this should be addressed to dave, not in this thread.

Plus, Dave has read what they've said and he still thinks it should stay here even after me suggesting maybe he should un-sticky it.

There is a FAQ/Write up section as well on this forum that he's been slowly putting together.



www.kronosperformance.com / 732-742-8837

Re: Simple Explaination of Intake/Exhaust Resonating & Camshafts Operation
Tuesday, August 07, 2007 4:06 PM
NJHK wrote:

Zs Z wrote:

I have to say that I agree with what a lot of people above said. This is a good read but there are a lot of J-body specific posts that I think should be made stickys and more valuable than this, such as the eco swap or the 2.3 oil pump swap walk through.


Maybe so but I think this should be addressed to dave, not in this thread.

Plus, Dave has read what they've said and he still thinks it should stay here even after me suggesting maybe he should un-sticky it.

There is a FAQ/Write up section as well on this forum that he's been slowly putting together.


well normaly I would agree with you. I have addresses the sticky issues, and the crappy FAQ before, but nothing seems to happen. I have offered to help, but no one has taking me up on it. So I have decided to make it known in threads that are connected. This one is.




FU Tuning



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